Punjab is located in the northwest of India surrounded by Pakistan on the west, the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Himachal Pradesh on its northeast and Haryana and Rajasthan to its south. It covers a geographical area of 50,362 sq. km which is 1.54 % of country’s total geographical area. Punjab state is located
between 29° 30' N to 32° 32' N latitude and between 73° 55' E to 76°
50' E longitude. Its average elevation is 300 m from the sea level.
of the land of Punjab is fertile plain but one can find the south-east
region being semi-arid and desert landscapes. A belt of swelling hills
extends along the northeast at the foot of the Himalayas. Punjab state
is situated between the great systems of the Indus and Ganges rivers.
Most of the state is an alluvial plain, irrigated by canals; Punjab's
arid southern border edges on the Thar, or Great Indian, Desert. The
Siwalik Range rises sharply in the north of the state.
In Punjab, the soil characteristics are influenced to a very limited extent by the topography, vegetation and parent rock. The variation
in soil profile characteristics are much more pronounced because of the
regional climatic differences. Punjab is divided into three distinct
regions on the basis of soil types. The regions are: South-Western
Punjab, Central Punjab and Eastern Punjab. Punjab falls under seismic
zones II, III, and IV. Zones II and III are referred to as Low Damage
Risk Zone while zone IV referred to as high damage risk zone.