is one of the culturally rich and vibrant states in India. It has always displayed heroism
and hospitality par excellence. With their warmth and diligence, Punjabi people welcome
everyone with open arms. The state has unique topography and typical North-Indian landscapes
with lots of attractions to explore. On the other hand, the intriguing history of Punjab invites you to revisit it
again and again.
The industries and business is also flourishing here with full
throttle. The agricultural potential of Punjab is known worldwide. Amidst all these, the
societal development of Punjab is equally impressive. Let us lay some
focus on all these aspects of Punjab to know more about it.
History of Punjab
History of Punjab goes back to as early as 516 BC. From
early settlements of Indus Valley Civilization to Aryans, this land has witnessed all of
them. The state has many historical monuments and sites that talk about the glorious past of
Punjab. The land was
inhabited by some of the mightiest empires and civilizations from time to time. Many of them
were invaders who came and settled over here.
Etymology of Punjab
The literal meaning of Punjab is land of five (Panj) rivers (Aab). It is
a Persian word. This name was possibly given to this region in the early phase of 14th
century. Towards the end of 16th century, Punjab again found its citation as such in
Tarikh-e-Sher Shah Suri. And later in inscriptions like Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal and
Tuzk-e-Jahangeeri by Jahangir. Interestingly, the synonymous name of Punjab is given in epic Mahabharata as well. In
this great epic, it is described as Panchnada, the country of five rivers.
Pre Historic Era of Punjab
Indus valley civilization is one of the earliest human
settlements known till date. Archeological evidences have proved the traces of this
civilization in Indus River basin. The beginning of vedic era was also quite evident in
Punjab. It was once
inhabited by the Aryans who laid foundation of vedic culture and Hindu religion. The society
at that time was tribal in composition. It constituted of janas or tribes made from many
grams (groups of families). Many significant events during Rigvedic era took place in Punjab, including the writing of
this oldest book.
In the early inscriptions of Panini and Kautilya as well, you can find
references of Greater Punjab. Panini’s literary work named
Ashtadhyayi, described communities of Punjab as Republics that lived by the power of
arms. These republics were differentiated by their existence. Like those residing in plains
were called as Vahikas while inhabitants of mountains were called Parvatiyas. Both of these
were constituted of many clans of warriors. In short, the region of greater Punjab supposedly belonged to
Martial people in that era. These inferences were again made by Kautilya’s Arthshatra
in 4th century BC. It can be said that these republics named as Dardas, Kambojas, Pauravas,
Malavas, Kurus, Madrakas, and Yaudheyas have played their major role in valiant history of
Ancient Empires in Punjab:
The land of Punjab made it the bone of contention for many
dynasties and mighty empires. From Aryans to Alexander, every great empire was attracted to
the varied landscape, strategic position, and fertility of this land. As such it was invaded
and inhabited by the earliest known empires like Achaemenid or the early Persians, Indo
Scythians and Greeks. Gandhara and kamboja were two main kingdoms under Greater Punjab region. They acceded to
the power of Achaemenid and became their prosperous satrapy.
defeated this powerful empire with his strong army of 50000 fighters. On his advancement
from Indus towards Jhelum, while some rulers submitted to his authority, there were some
brave rulers who refused this proposal and preferred to fight for their honour. These Trans
Indus tribes impressed Alexander with their valor and bravery. He settled two new cities
with Greeks and Macedonian people. Later, Seleucid and Bactrian empires ruled over this
land. This was the era when Punjab was ruled by the Indo Greeks who were
mostly the Buddhists.
The portions of Punjab that formed Satraps of Alexander were
conquered by great Mauryan king, Chandragupt Maurya. He defeated Alexander’s successor
Seleucus Nicator and ruled major part of Punjab. This empire lasted for more than a
century in this region. Other Central Asian powers like Sakas, Hephthalites, Guptas, and
Kushans also ruled over this state.
Rise of Islam in Arabic countries during 7th
century led to rise of Muslim invasions in Central Asian region. Arab armies conquered the
region of present day south Punjab. It was a major victory and ironically,
the last one. Arabs were confined to Sindh and South Punjab only. They could not proceed further from
there. It was the time when Pratihara rulers also reigned over some parts of Eastern Punjab. Brahmana Dynasty also
ruled the region between Sindh and Sutlej rivers. These were commonly known as Shahi
Waihind towards the right of Sindh was the capital of this dynasty that
ruled over vast area between Sirhind and Kabul. In 1021, Punjab was finally conquered by the Sultanate of
Ghazni. Its reign continued for more than 157 years. Gradually, they receded in powers and
lost vast area of their empire to Seljuk Turks. During the era of 1160, the Rajputs also
conquered areas of western Punjab. Later, Mohammad Ghori defeated Ghaznavid
kingdom in 1186-1187.
Medieval History of Punjab
Mohammad Ghori’s empire went under his general
Qutub-ud-Din Aibak in 1206 after the former’s death. He shifted his capital to Lahore
and laid foundation of Sultanate of Delhi. Punjab also came under this empire. It was
conquered by the Mongols after long battles fought between them and Sultans. Later on, Lodhi
rulers took over the territory of Punjab. With defeat of Lodhis by Babur in 1526,
Mughal Empire expanded across the region of Punjab as well. Their reign continued here till
the early 17th century.
The Durrani Empire established by Ahmad Shah
Abdali was established here in 1747. They faced severe battles against the Great Marathas
under Raghunathrao. However, Maratha Empire was ousted by Durranis in 1761 after their
defeat in third battle of Panipat.
Rule of Sikhs in Punjab
It was the early 18th century when Muslim rule in Punjab began to crumble. The
strong foothold of Ahmad Shah Abdali was receding and local rulers were regaining the powers
of kingdoms. It was a time of utter chaos. Since 1757, Abdali was ruling over the
territories of Punjab and
Sind. During the same time, Sikhs also rose in their power and advanced to conquer Punjab. In their initial efforts,
they were defeated by Afghan general, Taimur Khan. He forced Sikhs out of Amritsar but could
not hold it for long. The Sikhs united as Misal to defeat him badly. Eventually, Sikhs took
over the region of Lahore in 1758. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia became their leader as he played an
important role in retreat of Afghan forces.
At the time of third battle of Panipat in 1761, Ahmad Shah Abdali was engaged
in war against Marathas while Sikhs marched forward to seize significant towns owned by his
forces. These cities included Dialpur, Kot Isa Khan, Hoshiarpur, Jagraon, Naraingarh,
and Kapurthala. Slowly, they extended their territory till Tarn Taran when Abdali
left for Afghanistan. When Jassa Singh again marched to cross Beas in 1762, he had to face
stiff resistance from Abdali and his forces. A catastrophic battle took place that forced
Jassa Singh to flee towards Kangra Hills. But later on, when Abdali returned back, Sikhs
under his leadership once again attacked and seized Sirhind. In fact, this was the first big
victory of Sikhs in Punjab.
It established their rule in the entire territory of Sirhind.
The turnaround of
events after death of Abdali in 1793 worked completely in favor of Sikhs. Misls were united
in Punjab and they
controlled the whole territory of Punjab from all sides. Some were defeated by the
Afghan forces but they soon regained their power and remained so till 1793 when Shah Zaman
took over Kabul. He proved to be a major hurdle for conquests of Sikhs in this region.
Initially he was routed by Sikhs but after reorganizing his forces, Shah Zaman finally
ousted Sikhs out of Rohtas. It was the territory of Sukerchikias led by Ranjit Singh. During
the same time, turbulences back home in Afghanistan caused Zaman to return. It created an
opportunity for Sikhs to regain their power in Rohtas.
When Shah Zaman came back
with ambition to rule over Delhi, he received many successful alliances from Muslim rulers
and surprisingly from some Sikh sardars as well. He successfully captured the territories up
to Jhelum and moved on towards the territory owned by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Ranjit
Singh’s army was huge but it was inadequately armed to face the heavy artillery of
Afghans. As such, Sikhs decided to take shelter in hills. Shah Zaman easily entered Punjab and conquered Lahore.
In this crunch situation, Ranjit Singh reunited the Sikh forces and advanced in the
direction of Lahore. They dismantled the foothold of Afghans in many small villages falling
en route. During 1797, Shah Zaman had to return to Afghanistan for quashing the revolt from
his brother. On his way back, he was attacked by Sikh forces who also routed the Afghans
under Shahnachi Khan. Ranjit Singh became the war hero in Punjab with his victorious run.
In 1798, Shah Zaman came back again to take
revenge of his defeat. Sarbat Khalsa was called under Sada Kaur, who convinced Sikhs to
fight till their last breath. She asked the Sikhs to fight for their honor and pride of
their nation. In the strikes made by Shah Zaman’s forces, Muslims also suffered major
loss of men and material. He finally attacked the Sikh rulers of Lahore and recaptured the
citadel. Amritsar was next target of Zaman and it proved to be the fatal choice
eventually. Sikh forces under Ranjit Singh united and fought valiantly against Afghans,
forcing them to retreat. They returned to Lahore and Sikhs again surrounded them on all
sides. Their supply lines were cut and they suffered a humiliating defeat from Sikhs. While
retreating from Lahore, they plundered many towns. But this was actually the end of their
era in Punjab.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh became the undisputed leader of Punjab territory. He planned to attack Lahore and
offer respite to the people suffering from despotic rulers. In July 1799, Forces under
Ranjit Singh attacked and conquered Lahore. He settled a vast empire spanning from Sutlej in
east towards Peshawar city in west till the time when Sikhs were overruled by British during
Heirs to the throne of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Punjab
Kharak Singh (1801-1840), the eldest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Nau Nihal Singh (1821-1840), Grandson of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Sher Singh (1807-1843), Son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Duleep Singh (1838-1893), the youngest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh
The Rule of British in Punjab
1845 was marked by the onset of British rule in Punjab. It began with first Anglo
Sikh war fought near Firozpur. The outcome of this war came in favor of British forces that seized
the area between Beas and Sutlej rivers. The two forces entered into a peace treaty under
which some British troops were held back in Punjab to look after the dominion of Maharaja
Dhalip Singh, who was a minor. Sikhs were largely reduced in their numbers. As a
consequence, some soldiers revolted in 1848 in Multan. The unrest that followed led to
second Anglo Sikh war in 1849. After defeat of Sikhs in this war, Treaty of Lahore was
created that annexed Punjab
under East India Company.
Strategically, Punjab was one of the most influential
territories for British. Lahore and Rawalpindi were the most important cities under their
empire. With growing influence and atrocities of British, the struggles for freedom were
sparked across Punjab. This
state played the role of catalyst in this fight for independence. It produced some of the
bravest freedom fighters who led this movement till the end. In 1919, the massacre of
Jallianwala Bagh took place in Amritsar. In 1940, Muslim
League’s resolution for Pakistan was sparked off from Punjab itself. It entailed start of communal
violence in 1946 having Hindus and Sikhs on one side while Muslims on the other side.
Finally, the leaders from Indian National Congress and Muslim League agreed upon the
partition of Punjab.
Post Independence History of Punjab
At the time of independence in 1947, Western
Punjab was acceded to
Pakistan while the region of Eastern Punjab came under Indian Territory. The cities
where Sikh culture and history was nurtured went to other side of border. Grave of Maharaja
Ranjit Singh was left in Lahore of West Punjab. Sikhs lost their fertile lands, their
homes and belongings to move into Indian side of Punjab.
In the wars of 1965 and 1971
between India and Pakistan, Punjab and its people played a heroic role. Major
part of this war took place in Punjab region and India emerged as victorious in
both these wars. The decade of 1970 was highlighted by Green Revolution in Punjab. It became agriculturally
richest state of the country. On the other hand, massive industrialization was also promoted
in Punjab. It turned out to
be the main contributor to annual GDP of India as such.
Despite all this, Punjab had its share of unrest
also. In the decade of 1980, the state was struck hard by the fundamentalists Sikhs who
demanded independent status for Punjab, naming it as Khalistan. The movement was
started by a small group but supported by Sikhs from around the world. In 1984, central
government under then Prime Minister, Smt. Indira Gandhi led the operation Blue Star in
Harmandir Sahib of Amritsar. Many casualties followed this incident and temple complex was also
seriously damaged. The operation resulted in assassination of Smt. Indira Gandhi after two
months and outrageous riots across the nation. But Punjab and Delhi were worst affected. After years
of deliberate efforts made by police, administration, and government, situation calmed down
in Punjab. The state was
freed from the militancy during 1990s.
Punjab again played an important role to bridge
the gap between India and Pakistan. Wagah Border Post in Punjab is the main crossing point between two
nations. The famous Samjhauta Express train also runs from Atari in Indian Punjab to Lahore in Pakistan.
Formed on: 11th November 1966 No. of Districts: 22 Area: 50,362 sq km Area Rank: 19 Capital: Chandigarh Population: 27,704,236 Average Elevation:
300 meters Latitude: 29.30° North to 32.32° North Longitude: 73.55°
East to 76.50° East Time Zone: IST (UTC + 5:30) ISO Code: IN-PB Literacy
Rate: 76.68% Official Language: Punjabi in Gurmukhi Script State Animal: Black
Buck State Bird: Baz (Eastern Goshawk) State Tree: Shisham
Geography of Punjab
Punjab is a strategically important state of
India. It is, in fact, the eastern part of erstwhile larger Punjab Province. Indian side of Punjab is triangular in shape and
is a very fertile inland state. It is flanked by Jammu and Kashmir on the northern side,
Himachal Pradesh on the eastern side and state of Haryana on the southern side. It borders
with Pakistan on its western side. It is a border state with fertile plains and rich water
bodies. It has more than 90% area in the form of plains. Historically too, Punjab was a significant region
for Indian subcontinent. After partition, the macro regional properties were not changed in
Punjab but the landscape of
this state underwent sudden transformations on micro level.
Topography of Punjab
The landscape of Punjab is divided into two parts. The higher
region formed by sub Shivalik ranges and rest of the state is situated on Sutlej Ghaggar
river basin. Lower Shivalik ranges separate the mighty Himalayan ranges from the plains. In
the north eastern side of state, series of undulating hills lie at foot of Himalayan
The average elevation of Punjab ranges from 180 meter above sea level in
southwestern side to 350 meters towards northeast side. The region in southwestern side is
deserted in condition with extensive cultivation. It extends up to Thar Desert.
The flood plains of Punjab are formed by alluvial deposits brought by
the rivers and the highlands are made from the previous deposits of alluvium in this state.
The interfluves called doabs are named after the rivers confined to them. Although, Punjab looks flat on macro
regional levels, yet on micro regional level, it has diverse topographical conditions.
Topographical Regions of Punjab:
In respect of land forms, Punjab can be classified into four types that
1. Shivalik Ranges: The region of Punjab has steep rise of these hills in its
northern direction. These hills extend further towards east. Shivalik hills are thickly
formed by gravels and Mio-Pleistocene sands. They have low elevation ranging between 300 and
1000 meters above sea level. They offer striking contrast to the alluvial plains of this
region. Though, these hills are scantly forested and highly dissected.
2. The Foothill Zone: There is an
undulating and narrow zone situated along the foot of Shivalik hills. The unique feature of
this zone is the chos, the seasonal streams that cut across this tract. These streams
originate from the upper hills while the reason for their formation may be attributed to
massive deforestation. These are short distance inland streams running for mere 10-15 km.
This portion of land is called as Kandi tract in local terms. They are a major cause for
soil erosion in this region. The soil in this region is mostly stony and coarse. Hoshiarpur district
of Punjab is worst affected
by these streams. However, with modernization and development, these chos have been
controlled and bridged to avoid their worse effects.
3. Upland Plains: These refer to interfluvial tracts between Sutlej and Indus. These featureless plains have
old alluvium deposits and very low elevation. This region is predominantly known for
irrigation through canals. It has augmented agriculture of Punjab.
4. Flood Plains: Flood plains are typically formed by alluvium deposits of the rivers in monsoon season.
They have narrow tracts of 10-15 km. In Punjab, flood plains on western side of rivers
are mostly wastelands while those on eastern banks are wide enough for extensive
cultivation. Flood plains of Sutlej run from Ropar to Fazilka town in Firozpur. Ghaggar River has wider
flood plains running from eastern side of Patiala to Southern end of Mansa and
Sangrur. Flood plain of Beas has stretch from Dasuya in Hoshiarpur to Kapurthala while that of Ravi River
is existent at some places in Gurdaspur tehsil.
Water Bodies in Punjab
The rivers of Punjab are so closely related to its geography
that even the name of state is derived from their existence. In literal terms, Punjab means the land of five
rivers. They are integral to its existence and life. Apart from the rivers, the state has
numerous seasonal streams called chos formed during rainy season. The main rivers of Punjab are:
River: It is the largest and most important river in Punjab. Though the river originates in Tibet
region, it flows enormously in Punjab. Sutlej enters the state in Ropar district
and from here; it takes sharp turn towards the western plains. It separates Bist Doab from
Malwa Tract. The Bhakra Nangal Dam built on Sutlej is a major hydroelectric power project of
Beas River: This river enters Punjab at Mirthal. With construction of Pong Dam
on this river, agriculture has enhanced in tehsils of Gurdaspur, Dasuya and Kapurthala. Beas
flows to meet Sutlej in Harike. At this junction, it separates Bist Doaba from upper Bari
Doaba. It is around 460 kms in length with catchment area of 20, 000 sq km.
Ravi River: It is an ancient river that originates in Himachal Pradesh and
enters Punjab near
Madhopur. From here, Ravi flows towards Indo Pak border to finally join Chenab in Pakistan.
The water of this river is allocated to Indian Territory according to Indus Waters Treaty
signed between two nations. It has total length of 720 km.
River: It is also called as Sarasvati and has played important part in evolution of
Yamuna Sutlej divide of this region. It is an inland stream that enters the plains of Punjab in Mubarakpur. Then, it
flows towards eastern part of Patiala district, lower end of Mansa district, and south of Sangrur district
in the state. After that, it leaves Punjab to enter into the state of Rajasthan.
Chos in Punjab: They are an integral feature of drainage system in Punjab. They originate from
Southern slope of Shivalik ranges and run through the foothill zone. Then they either dry up
or merge with nearby streams. They have wide beds of sand, gravels, and stones. Their
spacing is narrowest in Hoshiarpur district, where you can find them at every one km distance.
Earlier, they were primary cause of soil erosion in state but now, these chos are
channelized and even dammed to store water for irrigation.
Flora and Fauna of Punjab
Plains of Punjab are mostly devoid of dense forests. They
mostly have shrubs, bushes, and wild grass. In terms of floral diversity, Shivalik area is
the richest and identified as Micro endemic zone as well. It has 70 species of trees and
shrubs, 355 of herbs, more than 20 species of twines, and 19 varieties of climbers. Also, it
has more than 30 species of pteridophytes, one of gymnosperms, and about 27 species of
bryophytes. The state has rich cultivation of fruits that include mango primarily grown in
southeast parts of Punjab.
Other fruits cultivated here are pomegranate, peach, apple, fig, orange, mulberry, apricot,
almond, plum, and quince.
The fauna of Punjab is also quite diverse. It boasts of more
than 390 species of birds, 19 species of mammals, more than 200 species of Lepidoptera, 20
of reptiles, and around 55 species of fish. In local rivers, crocodiles are found in
abundance while buffaloes can be easily found in grazing lands along the rivers. In
northeastern parts of the state, rearing of horses is also very common. Punjab also has venomous species
of snakes that include kraits and cobras. Mammals found in this state are wild boar, hog
deer, flying fox, squirrel, wild cat, mongoose, smooth coated otter, and black buck.
The state also has many zoological parks, wild life reserves, gardens, and wetlands.
Punjab has diversified climatic conditions
ranging from semi arid to sub humid. It is characterized by two major seasons. The summers
are extremely hot while winters are chilling cold in this state. Annual temperature dwells
between the extreme limit of 49 degrees Celsius and lower limits of 0 degrees Celsius.
Summers in Punjab
are blistering hot with low rainfall and relative humidity. June is the hottest month with
average temperature between 30-35 degrees Celsius.
Rainy season begins with arrival of monsoons in July month. During this
season, relative humidity is slightly high with average rainfall of 60 cm. Different parts
of the state receive different amount of rainfall. Areas of Shvalik ranges have average
rainfall of 150 cm while Southwest regions have only 25 cm of rainfall. Rainfall is heavy in
monsoon months from July to mid of September.
Winter season arrives from mid of
November. Period from mid December to mid January is the coldest in Punjab. Mean temperature durng this season falls
below 20 degrees Celsius in the state. Frost prevails in chilling winters along with some
drizzles of rain caused by western cyclones.
Before the onset of winters, Punjab has moderate climate in autumn season.
During this period, weather remains dry but quite enjoyable.
Spring season after
winter is generally short timed in Punjab. It is also interrupted by some rainfall
and hailstorms. Hailstorms are common in months of March and April in Punjab. They are caused by regional turbulences
in the nearby regions.
Three Seasons in Punjab: Summer Season- From
April to June Monsoon Season- From July to September Winter season- From December
Economy of Punjab has its base upon agriculture and its
allied industries. Punjab
is reckoned as one of the pioneer states in development of business and economy. This is
because of rapid growth of infrastructure and advance technology. It ranks apex in states.
It is a state where you can find all modes of transport, maximum power generation, dense
water supply, and other economical developments.
In Punjab, you will find that every city and village
is well connected through metal roads and railways. Government of India has included Punjab under the proposed Eastern
Rail Freight Corridor which will provide its exclusive connectivity with eastern part of
India, i.e. up to Dankuni in West Bengal through Bihar via Delhi. Efforts are also being
made to link up Punjab with
Western Freight Corridor for efficient movement of production capacities. Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Bathinda, Patiala, Faridkot,
Sangrur, Mohali, Batala, Rajpura, and Firozpur are recognized bigger towns
of Punjab which consist
major proportion of GDP (Gross Domestic Production) in economy of state.
Agriculture in Punjab
Punjab is the state in which five rivers are
flowing through it. The name itself emerged as Punj meaning five and Aab meaning rivers in
Punjabi language. Due to which, the state possesses the most fertile soil in northern part
of India. So, Agriculture is most suited occupation in all the regions of Punjab. In fact, Punjab is also called as break
basket of India. This is because, crops like maize, barley, rice, sugarcane, cotton, pearl
millet, and wheat are produced here in large quantity. Punjab contributes nearly 4% of wheat and 15 % of
rice in the total production of India. Rabi and kharif, two types of cultivation pattern is
followed in the state. In Rabi (spring harvest), farming of vegetable, wheat, potatoes,
gram, and barley is quite common while in kharif (autumn harvest) maize, rice, sugarcane,
pulses, and cotton agriculture is suitable.
Punjab has made significant growth in production
of food grains in last two decades. It is averagely giving the output above 290 lakh metric
tonnes. The government is emphasizing on plantation of citrus fruit orchards in the state.
They have formed Citrus Council to initiate dedicated efforts for this kind of farming and
nearly 2200 acres of farming land has been brought under citrus plantation in recent past.
With efforts in infrastructure development such transportation of perishable goods, apart
from customary wheat and rice farming, more crops and fruits cultivation is planned in the
region of Punjab.
Animal Husbandry and Dairy Farming in Punjab
Animal Husbandry is an important
element of state economy. Livestock contributes approximately 7.25% to state GDP. The state
of Punjab posses 76 milk
plants along with chilling station to develop dairy industry. The state produces
approximately 262 lakh Kg per day milk with the network of such developed infrastructure.
There is large setup of poultry farm as well. Punjab produces 3603 million eggs on an average
To support and develop healthy livestock,
government has set up organizations such as College of Dairy Science and Technology as well
as Veterinary Polytechnic College. Also, 1485 veterinary dispensaries and 1367 veterinary
hospitals are incepted in the region of Punjab along with 19 well planned polyclinics.
Industries in Punjab
Industry is an important part of economy and plays impeccable
role in development of region. As agriculture is the main source of economy in Punjab, business and industries
also revolves around this sector. Punjab has nearly 475 numbers of medium and large
scale units while number of small scale industries is more than 1.72 lacks. Industries in
Punjab are divided in three
basic form, agro based, machinery based, and chemical based industries. These medium and
large scale industries are generating 2.7 lack employments for skilled people while small
units generate nearly 10.6 lakhs employment for all kinds of job seekers.
Realizing the need of industrial growth, the state government has incepted new
ideas and modern thoughts in this field. Special Economic Zone Act 2009 has been passed to
incept SEZ (special economic zone) to offer dedicate setup for new industries in the state.
Special benefits of exemptions in duty free zone are made to attract new investors in Punjab.
of industries in Punjab:
Textile Industries in Punjab
Punjab is one of the major producers of good
quality cotton. Due to easy availability of raw material, many textile industries are
established in the region of Punjab. The major cotton mills are situated
around the city of Ludhiana, Amritsar, Mohali, Phagwara, Abohar, Kharar, Bathinda and Malout. The state
manufacture products from cotton worth Rs 1 lakh million yearly, in which one third is of
export quality for overseas markets. The state of Punjab shares 12 % in total production of cotton
bales in the country. Textile industries generate approximately 2 million jobs for skilled
and unskilled citizens of Punjab.
Sugar Industries in Punjab
Large quantity of sugarcane is cultivated in the state of
Punjab. So, it possesses
dense network of sugar mills located at Mukerian, Lauhka, Patran, Faridkot, Tarn Taran,
Jagraon, Ajnala, Dasuya, Batala, Bhogpur, Gurdaspur, Phagwara, Zira, Rakhra, Morinda, Nawanshahar,
Dhuri, Nakodar, Fazika, Budhewal, and Budhladha. This mills run under the umbrella of co-
operative and nearly 15 mills out of 22 are operated through joint holding.
Agro and food processing Industries in Punjab
Due to developed system and better connectivity of rural areas, Punjab has shown unprecedented
growth in recent years. As such the agriculture rich state of India is leading in the field
of agro based and food processing industries. It has more than 30 million metric tonnes of
food grain production per year.
The mechanization in farm sector with good
availability of power and irrigation facilities has also led to this development. The state
also has better sales facilities with 150 principal yards, 1317 buying centers, and 275 sub
market yards located across the state.
There are excellent institutes for
agricultural training and research along with efficient lab testing facilities. Cotton is
the principal crop grown here along with wheat.
National and Multinational Companies in Punjab:
Punjab has many multinational companies operating
in the state. They contribute to the economy of Punjab. Business friendly environment and
infrastructure of this state has induced these companies to set up their units here. Some of
the leading companies present in Punjab are:
Godrej Washing Machine
Factors contributing to growth of Industries in Punjab:
Availability of skilled work force
Conducive environment enabled by administration
High Per capita income of the state
Agricultural and small scale industrial development
Affordable water and power supply
Well laid out financial distribution system
Proper facilities for better industrial relations and export growth
Government Organizations to Support Business and Economy of Punjab
Punjab Small Industries and Export Corporation Ltd:
health atmosphere to groom small scale industries in the state of Punjab, PSIEC (Punjab Small Industries and Export
Corporation Ltd) has been embarked on state level. A separate association of industries is
commenced at every industrial area to look into the matters of infrastructure development
for industries. The organization is looking to increase export opportunities in this region.
Industrial park or Industrial mixed used park is set in Kapurthala in area of 226 acres for
developing export strength of state. Currently, they have export value of 24 thousand crore
on an average.
Punjab Agro Industries Corporation Ltd.:
It is a nodal agency appointed by
state government to watch the proceedings of industries which are allied to Agriculture. The
corporation has responsibility of preparing thorough project reports of industries which
could be ideal in that location.
They take opportunity to identify the prospects
as well to endeavor the work of establishing industry. It also participates in the equity
capital of industries which may vary from 11% to 26%.
As of now, PAIC has
launched 44 agro projects such as horticulture, chemical fertilizers, and agriculture
production by investing nearly Rs. 705 crore along with approving nearly 57 mega projects in
this concern. Institute offers complete support of acquiring government licenses, sanctions
Punjab Information & Communication Technology
Corporation Ltd (INFOTECH)
Punjab infotech is commenced in state to provide
comprehensive environment to entrepreneurs who desire to set up computer software institute
in Punjab. It is like an
incubation center that offer complete plug and play type facility for new businessmen. They
provide complete baggage of ready to move infrastructure accomplished with telephone lines,
voice mails, broadband connection, conference rooms, etc. IT sector is booming in the state
of Punjab and showing
double digit growth. Punjab
Information & Communication Technology Corporation Ltd in association with state
government has established STPI center in the region of Mohali.
State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd.:
PSIDC is one the government
undertakings which is endeavored to develop overall growth of industries. It acts as a state
level financial institution as well as institutional promoter. To boost the industrial
revolution in Punjab, it
has taken initiatives to encourage setup of oil refinery projects along with laying gas
pipeline and optic fibre cable. Even Plastic Park is proposed to be built near refinery.
Energy and Power Supply in Punjab:
Electricity is important
component of economic growth in Punjab. For efficient working of power generation
and supply in this region, the government has incepted numbers of hydropower and thermal
power plants. Punjab State Power Corporation Ltd aims to make Punjab power surplus state with hundred percent
efficient generation and distribution of energy.
Power plants in
Bathinda, Guru Nanakdev Thermal Plant
Ropar, Guru Gobind Singh Thermal Power Plant
Guru Hargobind Singh Thermal Power Plant
Basically Punjab is agriculture centric society and people
here hail from farming background. Variability in population depends upon socio economic
conditions of this state. Currently, Punjab has more than 12,000 villages located
within 22 districts. There are well developed metro cities, towns, satellite towns, and
villages where people find best living conditions. However, there are some adversities as
well. Social imbalances give rise to inequality and injustice in society.
Punjab government has established
Social Welfare Department that looks after the affairs of social welfare. They act more
responsibly and are liable to bring social justification in society. For smoother running of
welfare functions, Ministry of Social Welfare along with departments is engaged in uplifting
all corners of society simultaneously. Social welfare is constituted with two major
departments, namely Samajik Nyay Aur Adhikarita Vibhag (Social Welfare Department Punjab and
Empowerment) and Nishaktat Karya Vibhag (Department of Disability Affairs).
Aim of Social Welfare Department and Empowerment in Punjab
Planning and implementation of policies related to Scheduled Castes, Backward Class,
Tribes, Senior Citizens, and Economically Backward Class.
Special efforts and schemes are implemented to support education for backward groups. It
also aims to provide economic empowerment. Skill training, scholarship, hostels, school,
subsidized loan, etc are offered to such groups to accentuate their pace of growth.
Support and care programs are organized keeping senior citizens in mind. They are
provided with accommodations, pension scheme, health care, and treatment.
They work to rehabilitate people addicted to drugs, alcohol, or other abusive
substances. They organize camps in association with NGOs to spread awareness in society
regarding these substances. They also run drug rehab centers for addicted peoples.
The department is responsible for implementing treaties of international conventions and
agreement taking place on government’s behalf.
They are responsible to protect rights of citizen and defend the Act of 1955 in public
Aim of Department of Disability Affairs in Punjab
Distribution of donated goods or relief material supplied from foreign countries. Also
look into the matters of duty free import of such materials under Indo-UK, Indo US, Indo
Swiss, etc agreements.
They are responsible to provide relief for disabled individuals who are unemployable.
They ensure social security and assurance for physically disabled persons.
They train and educate such disabled person to bring them in main stream of life. They
provide aid for disabled such as scholarship, skill training, and subsidized as well as easy
loans along with setting up o0f disability compatible school in this region.
They ensure to give equal opportunities to disabled persons. They give maximum chance of
participation and responsibility to protect their rights as well.
NGOs in Punjab
To initiate the social work in Punjab, the state has many Non Government
Organizations (NGOs) working here. These organizations work with support of government
authorities and private individuals/groups. As such, they aim to bridge the gap between the
privileged and under privileged people of Punjab. Some of the main NGOs working in Punjab are:
Pahal: Pahal is social initiative operated in various cities of Punjab under the leadership of
Lakhbir Singh. This NGO is engaged in the social programs related to environment, health,
women welfare, children welfare, and uplifting of people living below poverty line. They
organize blood donation camps, environment awareness, and medical camps for such people. Address: 36, New Vivekanand Park, Maqsudan, Jalandhar Phone No: 0181-
2672784, 9814866230 Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org,
Salam Zindagi Foundation: Salam Zindagi
Foundation is unique initiative incepted in the region of Ludhiana to support children
suffering from Thalassemia. They organize camps and programs to spread awareness among the
people. They encourage people to donate blood for such patients and allow them to live
normal life. Address: Saw Mill Street, Joshi Nagar, Haibowal, Ludhiana, Punjab Phone No: 9814704064,
9417681719 Email: email@example.com
Society for Service to Voluntary Agency (North) Punjab:
Popularly known as SOSVA, it is one of the renowned non government organizations
that endeavor social services in the region of Punjab.
They undertake social causes
such as child health, women empowerment, drug de-addiction, child education and HIV/ Aids.
This NGO basically provide support to field NGO that works on grass root level to penetrate
deep into society.
Aagaz NGO: Established under the Societies
Registration Act 1860, Aagaz is one of the all round NGOs of Punjab. It is engaged in the social causes
related to rural and urban areas. They empower and uplift the lifestyle of under privileged
people, especially women and poor children. Also, they undertake programs of skill training,
career or physiology counseling, environment conservation, and solve problems like child
abuse and women inequalities. Address: 655, Gurdeb Nagar, Pakhowal Road,
Ludhiana Phone No: 8146639291 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Umeed NGO: Umeed is
envisioned with scope of providing light of courage and inspiration to underprivileged
people in Punjab. It is
working under the guidance of Arvind Khanna to uplift deprived and poor people of society.
They are more centric for women empowerment, skill development, health issues, and
employment generation. Address: Gaushala Road, Opposite New Grain Market,
Sangarur, Punjab Phone
No: 01672- 236744 Email: email@example.com
Kiran Society of
Creative Women: Kiran is a social NGO based in Amritsar to promote children and
women welfare in society. They work at deeper section of society and spread awareness
regarding health, education, social empowerment, etc. They emphasizes on crucial issues such
as water conservation, girl child, voting campaign, and other such. Address: Amritsar
Aashray NGO: Aashray is incepted in the region of Jalandhar to offer children welfare
as well as animal wellness. They support unprivileged children in society with proper
accommodation, health, education, and living.
The society also initiates programs
to protect birds and provide them with food as well as shelter.
SANS NGO: Shaheed Ajit
Singh Naujawan Society is one of the upcoming welfare societies registered in the year 2010,
working for under privileged children and women. To serve humanity is the main motto of this
society. They fight against social evil and environmental degradation to manage humanity in
society. Address: Mohalla Mohidru, Jalandhar Phone No: Email:
Arpan NGO: Arpan NGO is one of the on field social
activists located in the region of Ropar. It is engaged in uplifting lifestyle of women,
children and backward people. They are helping under privileged sections of society to
empower and provide them basic needs. Address: Near Govt Primary School,
Dobhetta, Ropar Phone No: 0887- 224741, 9417563054 Email:
Globe Peace Mission: Globe Peace Mission is
one of the pioneer social organizations based in the region of Batala. It organizes the awareness
programs about literacy, education, rural development, legal awareness, and HIV. They
arrange vocational training, nutritional programs, youth affairs, and actively participate
in saving drinking water and environment. Address: SCF 22, Diamond Avenue,
Opposite Dharampura, Batala Phone No: 01871- 501151 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Green Foundation: Green Foundation is engaged in environmental concerns
which are rising at alarming rate around the globe. It has large numbers of volunteers and
activists that organizes several programs throughout the year to promote tree plantation and
spread awareness regarding environment. Address: Green Foundation, Pheruman
Chowk, Kotkapura Phone No: 01635- 224898 Email: email@example.com
Helping Hands Club: Helping Hand is exceptional welfare society that
emphasizes on blood donation awareness programs. They are dedicated and looking for zero
death due to shortage of blood or its components. They also provide essentials to poor and
unprivileged children or women in society. Address: Chowk Hira Halwai Gokul
Road, Ludhiana Phone No: 0161- 2725480, 9569155556 Email:
Nishkamm Sewa Ashram: Nishkam Sewa
Ashram Trust NGO is incepted in the region of Ludhiana since 35 years. It provides
accommodation to mentally retarded people and unfortunate aged citizens of Punjab. They run training
programs for unskilled, awareness camps for child abuse, health concerns. Address: Village Daad, Po Lalton Kalan, Pakhowal Road, Ludhiana Phone No: 0161-
2806283, 9814697524 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Welfare Society: Paryas Welfare Society, located in Firozpur Cantt area is one of all
round socially active organizations that offers endless support to different problems of
society. They encourage children for education by providing books and school accessories to
needy students. They provide utmost support to handicapped and unfortunate people. Address: House No. 212, Bazar No. 1, Firozpur Cantt., Punjab Phone No: 01632-
503564, 988928564 Email: email@example.com